Farnam's Bio Spot Flea & Tick Almost Killed Our Dog."
Six months ago, my family adopted
a one and a half year old Dalmatian,
named Hamish. He had been in a
kill shelter in Connecticut, and was
rescued just one day before he was
scheduled to be destroyed.
To protect him from fleas and ticks,
we chose Frontline - a liquid that is
applied to the dog's back. It gave
us peace of mind knowing that he
had this protection, but it had to be
purchased from a veterinarian and
was quite expensive.
One day while shopping, I came
across an over-the-counter product,
called Bio Spot Flea & Tick Control
(by Farnam Pet Products). It looked
similar to the Frontline product, but it was much cheaper, so I decided to try it. The Bio Spot seemed to work just as well as Frontline, so I used it again six weeks later.
An hour after applying the Bio Spot, I found Hamish thrashing about on the ground. His body was completely stiff. His head was raised in the air, and his jaws were opened wide. A thick foamy saliva was spewing from his mouth. Horrified, I tried to determine if something was stuck in his throat. His windpipe was clear, but he was not breathing. His eyes began to roll back in his head. He was dying and I did not know what to do to save him! We made a desperate call to our veterinarian.
IF YOU SUSPECT AN ADVERSE REACTION TO A FLEA CONTROL PRODUCT...
1. BATHE YOUR PET WITH MILD SOAP AND RINSE WITH LARGE AMOUNTS OF WATER.
2. IF SIGNS CONTINUE (LETHARGY, LOSS OF APPETITE, DROOLING, INCOORDINATION,
LABORED BREATHING, INCREASED EXCITABILITY, ELEVATED BODY TEMPERATURE,
VOMITING, DIARRHEA, OR SEIZURES), CONSULT A VETERINARIAN IMMEDIATELY.
3. REPORT IT TO THE MANUFACTURER OF THE PRODUCT AND THE U.S. EPA.
After a few minutes, Hamish slowly began to recover. We had just witnessed something we had never seen before - a grand mal (severe) seizure. Our veterinarian said that a blood test might help to find the cause, and mentioned the possibility of epilepsy. By the afternoon, Hamish looked much better, but that night he endured three more grand mal seizures.
Why would a healthy dog have four grand mal seizures within twenty hours? I searched the Internet for information on epilepsy, and read that if seizures begin to occur frequently, the animal may have to be euthanized! We would not know the results of the blood test for a week, but we had a feeling it was
not epilepsy, and wondered if the seizures were caused by the Bio Spot.
It seemed unlikely that Bio Spot could have caused the seizures because we had used it (same batch) just six weeks earlier with no adverse effects. Also, the packaging did not list seizures as a possible adverse reaction (it listed only lethargy, itchiness, redness, rash, hair discoloration, or hair loss).
Just in case the seizures were caused by the Bio Spot, we thoroughly washed Hamish to remove as much of it as possible, and took him to our veterinarian for a physical exam and blood test. The exam showed that everything was normal, and the blood test revealed no internal problems. Our veterinarian
could not rule out Bio Spot as the cause of the seizures.
Hamish has not had any seizures since the Bio Spot was thoroughly washed off three weeks ago, and appears to be in good health. However, we worry about irrepairable damage that may have been done to his neurological system, and wonder if short-term exposure to the chemicals in BioSpot will cause any long-term health problems.
July 14, 2002
How Bio Spot Works
According to Farnam's website, the ingredients in Bio Spot "move around your dog's coat by several processes including diffusion and capillary action, and transfer from hair to hair as the pet moves." That may lead you to believe that it remains on your dog's coat, therefore it's safe for your dog. The truth is these harmful chemicals are absorbed through the skin and enter the bloodstream. That is also how transdermal patches work - they use the skin as a way to enter the body.
The main active ingredient in Bio Spot is a pesticide known as Permethrin (it is used in more than 18 similar products, including Bayer K9 Advantix, Defend EXspot, and Hartz Control OneSpot). It kills insects by paralyzing their nervous system (that is also how nerve gas works). However, it cannot distinguish between an insect's nervous system, a dog's nervous system, or a human's nervous system. That is why it is important to wash your hands thoroughly with soap and water after handling.
BY JAMES TERBUSH
James TerBush is a designer of educational games, and lives in Pennsylvania.
® Serious Risk to Health
While never claiming their Bio Spot product is safe for dogs, the Farnam website states, "Nearly all dogs tolerate Bio Spot well." However, that does not mean it is safe for ANY dog. The word "tolerate" means
to bear, endure, or suffer. According to the Natural Resources Defense Council:
"Many and perhaps most Americans believe that commercially available pesticides, such as those found in pet products, are tightly regulated by the government. In fact, they are not. Not until the passage of a 1996 law focused on pesticides in food did the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) begin examining the risks from pesticides in pet products in earnest. To this day, the EPA allows the manufacture and sale of pet products containing hazardous insecticides with little or no demonstration that a child's exposure to these ingredients would be safe. Just because these products are on store shelves does
not mean they have been tested or can be presumed safe."
"Of course, as bad as these products may be for pet owners and caregivers, they often are worse for
the pets themselves. Based on the very limited data available, it appears that hundreds and probably thousands of pets have been injured or killed through exposure to pet products containing pesticides.
As with small children, pets cannot report when they're being poisoned at low doses."
Natural Resources Defense Council
Health Hazards from Flea and Tick Products (Executive Summary)
What is known about Bio Spot's main active ingredient, Permethrin? A few drops of it can be deadly
to a cat. Toxicological studies have linked this pesticide to serious acute and chronic health effects. The EPA has classified it as a possible human carcinogen because it increases the frequency of lung and liver tumors in laboratory animals. It suppresses the immune system. Permethrin is also suspected to have played an important role in the development of illnesses known as the Gulf War Syndrome.
In a recently published journal entitled, Experimental Neurology, researchers at Duke University Medical Center found that frequent and prolonged use of Permethrin on adult rats lead to cell death in their brains. In another recent study, researchers at Virginia Tech found that low-level exposure to Permethrin caused changes in the brain that could lead to Parkinson's Disease.
The inert ingredients in Bio Spot, which are not disclosed, may pose an even greater risk because they receive much less scrutiny by the Environmental Protection Agency. The cumulative and synergistic
effects of these chemicals are not required to be tested for safety.
Is it true that nearly all dogs tolerate Bio Spot well? Perhaps, but the risk of short-term exposure includes severe adverse reactions, and the risk of long-term exposure is unknown.
As of November 28, 2006, this website has had over 112,739 visitors!
TOXIC CHEMICALS RESPONSIBLE FOR BRAIN DAMAGE OF CHILDREN
WHAT YOU SHOULD KNOW ABOUT FLEA AND TICK PRODUCTS
DR. MICHAEL W. FOX : PREVENTING FLEAS, TICKS AND MOSQUITOES
THE USE OF PERMETHRIN (BIO SPOT FOR DOGS, DEFEND)
ARE ANECDOTAL REPORTS OF SUSPECTED ADVERSE DRUG REACTIONS VALUABLE EARLY WARNING SIGNALS?
TOXICOLOGY INFORMATION FOR VETERINARIANS
PESTICIDE POISONING NEEDS TO BE REPORTED
WAL-MART TO USE PREFERRED SUBSTANCES IN CHEMICAL INTENSIVE PRODUCTS
KIDS MAY BE EXPOSED TO PESTICIDES AT DAYCARE
CHEMICAL IN PEST STRIPS, PET COLLARS CAN HARM NERVOUS SYSTEM
PESTICIDE EXPOSURE DAMAGES NERVOUS SYSTEM, BRAIN
RESEARCH SUGGESTS LINK BETWEEN PESTICIDES AND BRAIN DISEASE
WHAT YOU MAY NOT KNOW ABOUT FLEA PRODUCTS
PUBLIC HEALTH STATEMENT FOR PYRETHRINS AND PYRETHROIDS
PESTICIDES AND SKIN SAFETY
RESEARCH DOCUMENTS CHILDREN'S EXPOSURE TO PESTICIDES
HOUSEHOLD PESTICIDES SCRUTINIZED
CANCER SOCIETY PUSHING PESTICIDE BAN
PESTICIDES AND KIDS DON'T MIX
CHILD CANCER PESTICIDE LINK
EXPRESS YOUR CONCERNS TO THE EPA
EPA - PESTICIDES - LABELING CLAIMS
STATES TO EPA: LABEL ALL HAZARDS IN PESTICIDES
EPA SLOW TO MEET MANDATE ON ENDOCRINE-DISRUPTING CHEMICALS
BOXER LEADS SENATORS IN CALL FOR RESTORED ACCESS TO EPA LIBRARIES
INTERSEX FISH FOUND IN POTOMAC
EPA CHIDED OVER 'INTERSEX' FISH CONCERNS
PENDING PESTICIDE APPROVALS TROUBLE EPA SCIENTIST
SLOW-ACTING - AFTER 25 YEARS, THE EPA STILL WON'T BAN A RISKY PESTICIDE
RISKS REMAIN UNCERTAIN WHILE PROHIBITED SAFETY CLAIMS CONTINUE
REPUBLICANS PREPARE ANOTHER GIFT FOR THE CHEMICAL INDUSTRY
DEMOCRATS CHALLENGE EPA RULING ON HUMAN TESTING OF PESTICIDES
9,000 EPA SCIENTISTS CALL FOR AN END TO COMPROMISING SAFETY
PESTICIDE INDUSTRY PLOTTED BUSH HUMAN TESTING POLICY
GROUPS CHALLENGE EPA'S 'INDUSTRY FRIENDLY' PESTICIDE RULES
EPA'S PESTICIDE STREAMLINING REJECTED
SUMMER IS THE DEADLIEST TIME OF YEAR FOR COMPANION ANIMALS
WAYS TO HELP PETS AVOID GETTING CANCER
CENTRAL GARDEN & PET AGREES TO ACQUIRE FARNAM COMPANIES, INC.
ASPCA STUDY FINDS COCOA BEAN MULCH COULD HARM DOGS
ADVERSE VACCINE REACTIONS BY W. JEAN DODDS
VACCINATIONS: A WORD OF CAUTION FOR OUR ANIMALS
VACCINATION IN ANIMALS
WHAT'S BUGGING YOU? IT COULD BE PESTICIDES
PESTICIDES IN INDOOR AIR OF HOMES - NPIC GENERAL FACT SHEET
SOURCES OF INDOOR AIR POLLUTION - PESTICIDES
SOURCES OF INDOOR AIR POLLUTION - VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS
BUG SPRAY LABELS UNDER STUDY
KIDS EVEN MORE VULNERABLE TO PESTICIDES THAN PREVIOUSLY BELIEVED, STUDY SHOWS
PESTICIDE RISK TO BABIES UNDERESTIMATED: STUDY
WHY CHILDREN MAY BE ESPECIALLY SENSITIVE TO PESTICIDES
PESTICIDES BLAMED AS AUTISM RATE SOARS
ORGANIC DIETS KEEP KIDS PESTICIDE FREE
PHOTOGRAPHER LAURIE TUMER SHOWS THE HIDDEN PATHS OF PESTICIDES
PROFESSOR WARNS COUNCIL OF PESTICIDE DANGERS
PESTICIDE COMBINATIONS IMPERIL FROGS
MY PROBLEM WITH PESTICIDES
STOP TESTING PESTICIDES ON PEOPLE
CLOTHING LINE REPELS INSECTS, ATTRACTS CRITICS
OUR RECKLESS CHEMICAL DEPENDENCE
PUBLIC NEEDS BETTER PROTECTION FROM PESTICIDES
EPA PESTICIDE REGULATIONS HAVE A FEW BUGS, TOO
PESTICIDES: TOO LITTLE TOO LATE
A WORRIED MOTHER DISCOVERS THE SECRETS OF PESTICIDE TESTING
POLITICS WEIGH HEAVILY IN PESTICIDE APPROVAL PROCESS, CRITICS SAY
PESTICIDES TARGETING WEST NILE-CARRYING MOSQUITOS MAY BE A THYROID DANGER
HOME HAZARDS: RESIDENTIAL PESTICIDES POSE THREATS TO CHILDREN'S HEALTH
HOUSEHOLD INSECTICIDES COULD DOUBLE CHILD LEUKAEMIA RISK
STUDY LINKS IQ TO PESTICIDE USE
MOST SCHOOLS STILL USE PESTICIDES, REPORT SAYS
PESTERING SCHOOL AUTHORITIES ABOUT PESTICIDES
STUDY LOOKS FOR PESTICIDE EXPOSURE AND BRAIN DEVELOPMENT
PARENTS WITH PESTICIDE FEARS TURN TO ORGANIC BABY FOOD
AMERICANS REPELLED BY MOSQUITO REPELLENT
A DOGFIGHT OVER FLEAS, TICKS
WHOLE DOG JOURNAL - A MONTHLY GUIDE TO NATURAL DOG CARE & TRAINING
TIPS ON ALL-NATURAL FLEA & TICK PREVENTION
BLOOD-SUCKING TICKS AN INTERESTING INSECT
LEAST-TOXIC CONTROL OF TICKS
LEAST-TOXIC CONTROL OF FLEAS
NATURAL FLEA CONTROL
THE NATURAL APPROACH TO FLEA CONTROL
NATURAL FLEA CONTROL
HOLISTIC FLEA, TICK, AND MOSQUITO CONTROL
TAKING CARE OF FLEAS CAN BE HARD WORK
WHY SOME PEOPLE ENTICE MOSQUITOES
CANINE NATURAL CURES - FAREWELL TO FLEAS
LYME DISEASE STILL A THREAT
LYME DISEASE: FACT FROM FICTION
ARE "SPOT-ON" FLEA KILLERS SAFE?
ELIMINATE FLEAS WITHOUT POISONS
TOPICAL FLEA CONTROL PRODUCTS
HOW TO GROOM PETS FOR FLEAS
MANAGING FLEAS WITHOUT POISONS
CURE AND PREVENT FLEAS NATURALLY
'BLINDING' AN INSECT'S SENSE OF SMELL MAY BE THE BEST REPELLENT
CSREES FUNDS LAB TO DEVELOP NATURAL PEST REPELLENT
SERGEANT'S ANNOUNCES LICENSING AGREEMENT FOR NEW LINE OF PEST CONTROL PRODUCTS FORMULATED USING NATURAL PLANT OILS
NATURAL PEST CONTROL ON THE RISE, BUT DOES IT WORK?
OUR TOXIC DOGS
FLEA/TICK PESTICIDE RISKS
CHEMICAL RISKS OF FLEA CONTROL
FLEAS, TICKS, MOSQUITOES - PREVENTION AND TREATMENT
PRO-TICK REMEDY - THE BEST TICK REMOVAL TOOL
IT'S TIME TO START CHECKING FOR TICKS AGAIN
TOXICITY AND POTENTIAL HEALTH EFFECTS OF PESTICIDES
THE DOSE MAKES THE POISON - OR DOES IT?
DOES "THE DOSE MAKE THE POISON?"
DOSE-RESPONSE RELATIONSHIPS IN TOXICOLOGY
PESTICIDE RISK/BENEFITS ANALYSIS: WHO IS MAKING THE BENEFITS PORTION?
PESTICIDE REGISTRATION NO GUARANTEE OF SAFETY
THE MYTH OF SAFETY - A FAILED REGULATORY SYSTEM
FDA HEAD STEPS DOWN ABRUPTLY
ALLERGIES : A CONDITION OF EPIDEMIC PROPORTIONS
PRESS CONFERENCE FLESHES OUT BEYOND PESTICIDES NEW CAMPAIGN
MIX OF CHEMICALS PLUS STRESS DAMAGES BRAIN, LIVER IN ANIMALS AND LIKELY IN HUMANS
POISONING THE UNBORN
ASSESSING LEVELS OF INTERMITTENT EXPOSURES OF CHILDREN TO FLEA CONTROL INSECTICIDES FROM THE FUR OF DOGS
GROUPS SUE EPA FOR APPROVING UNETHICAL AND ILLEGAL HUMAN PESTICIDE TESTING
EPA'S PROPOSED RULE ON PESTICIDE TESTING ON CHILDREN IS STIRRING AN ETHICAL CONTROVERSY
EXPERIMENTING ON CHILDREN
EPA USING DATA FROM CHEMICAL TESTS ON HUMANS
PESTICIDE EXPOSURE MAY IMPAIR CHILDREN'S BRAIN FUNCTION
DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROTOXICITY OF PYRETHROID INSECTICIDES: CRITICAL REVIEW AND FUTURE RESEARCH NEEDS
HOUSEHOLD PESTICIDES AND RISK OF PEDIATRIC BRAIN TUMORS
SPECIAL PROBLEMS OF PESTICIDE EXPOSURE FOR CHILDREN
PESTICIDE EFFECTS IN CHILDREN
PESTICIDE EXPOSURE AND YOUR HEALTH
SCIENCE GAP AT THE EPA
DON'T WAIT FOR THE EPA - OR ANYONE
OUR RIGHT-TO-KNOW : PESTICIDE PRODUCT LABELS
http://www.crtk.org/detail.cfm?docID=680&cat=posting and labeling
WHAT IS HOUSEHOLD HAZARDOUS WASTE?
UNCALCULATED RISKS IN SOME PESTICIDES, UCR STUDY FINDS
A COCKTAIL OF PROBLEMS
PESTICIDES IN YOUR HOME
BEWARE THE AIR YOU BREATHE AT HOME
EFFECTS OF PERMETHRIN EXPOSURE ON BRAIN FUNCTION
MAKING THE LINK BETWEEN CHEMICALS AND LEARNING DISABILITIES
PESTICIDE EXPOSURE DURING PREGNANCY
EDITORIAL: PARKINSON'S RESEARCH PAINTS A GRIM PICTURE
MOTOR NEURONE DISEASE MAY BE LINKED TO PESTICIDE EXPOSURE
RESEARCH BOLSTERS LINK OF PESTICIDES TO PARKINSON'S
PARKINSON'S LINKED TO INSECTICIDE USE
DATA LINK INSECTICIDE AND PARKINSON'S
INSECTICIDE CAUSES MAD COW DISEASE
A TYPE OF PESTICIDE SEEN AS A SAFER ALTERNATIVE IS GETTING A RE-EVALUATION BY STATE AND FEDERAL AGENCIES
ALTERED BREAST TISSUE DEVELOPMENT IN YOUNG GIRLS LINKED TO PESTICIDES
PYRETHROIDS AND THE RISK OF BREAST CANCER
PYRETHROIDS: NOT AS SAFE AS YOU THINK
WHAT ARE "INERT" INGREDIENTS?
THE SECRET INGREDIENTS IN PESTICIDES: REDUCING THE RISK
PESTICIDES' INERT INGREDIENTS SHOULD ALSO CAUSE CONCERN
FARM HARM: AG CHEMICALS MAY CAUSE PROSTATE CANCER
PESTICIDE BUGS AIR PASSENGERS - SPRAY TO HALT SPREAD OF DISEASE SICKENS SOME
FLIGHT ATTENDANTS CALL FOR END TO ON-BOARD INSECTICIDES
HARTZ CONTROL ONE-SPOT
FLEA -CONTROL PRODUCTS THREATEN PETS AND HUMANS
JURY AWARDS HORSE FARM $1 MILLION IN FEED ADDITIVE LAWSUIT
VETERINARY MEDICINE: POISONINGS IN PETS
PERMETHRIN AND PYRETHRIN TOXICITY: FLEA PRODUCT TOXICITY
HARTZ TO RELABEL AND CANCEL FLEA AND TICK DROPS FOR CATS AND KITTENS
HARTZ FLEA, TICK DROPS GENERATING THOUSANDS OF COMPLAINTS
HARTZ VICTIMS ORGANIZATION - ONE MORE VICTIM IS ONE TOO MANY
FDA RECALLS POPULAR HEARTWORM DRUG (PROHEART 6) FOR DOGS
DEDICATED ORGANIZATION FOR OUR PETS GENERAL SAFETY
CANINES IN CRISES - PEOPLE FOR PETS EXCHANGE
PET ADVOCATE 101
HOW TO REACT IN FRONT OF A VET COMPLAINING ABOUT VOMITING IN DOGS AFTER TREATMENT WITH DRONTAL PLUS
CAT DIES AFTER GETTING OVER-THE-COUNTER FLEA TREATMENT
FOOD PETS DIE FOR: SHOCKING FACTS ABOUT PET FOOD
FOOD NOT FIT FOR A PET
FOOD EVEN A DOG SHOULDN'T EAT - KILLING OUR PETS WITH EVERY MEAL
DOGS AND PESTICIDE USE
GREYHOUNDS OF EASTERN MICHIGAN
POISONS ON PETS: HEALTH HAZARDS FROM FLEA AND TICK PRODUCTS
NEUROTOXICITY IN DOGS & CATS
HEALTH HAZARDS POSED TO PESTICIDE APPLICATORS
RECOGNITION AND MANAGEMENT OF PESTICIDE POISONING
MECHANISMS OF PYRETHROID NEUROTOXICITY
SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS OF PESTICIDE POISONING
ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH PERSPECTIVES
VETERINARIANS WON'T PRESCRIBE FRONTLINE BECAUSE THEY SAY IT ISN'T WORKING
FIPRONIL - LETTER FROM THE NEW YORK STATE DEPT. OF ENVIRONMENTAL CONSERVATION
THE RECONSIDERATION OF APPROVALS AND REGISTRATIONS RELATING TO FIPRONIL (THE PESTICIDE IN FRONTLINE)
RECONSIDERATION OF APPROVALS AND REGISTRATIONS RELATED TO FIPRONIL (THE PESTICIDE IN FRONTLINE)
FRONTLINE SPOT ON FOR DOGS - SUMMARY OF PRODUCT CHARACTERISTICS
NOVEL DRUG DELIVERY STRATEGIES IN VETERINARY MEDICINE - (FRONTLINE)
MEDICAL ALERT: PROBLEMS REPORTED WITH NEW TOPICAL FLEA PRODUCTS
DOG FLEASPRAY (FRONTLINE) USED ON KIDS
COMPARATIVE EFFICACY OF A COMBINATION OF FIPRONIL/(S)-METHOPRENE, A COMBINATION OF IMIDACLOPRID/PERMETHRIN,
AND IMIDACLOPRID AGAINST FLEAS AND TICKS WHEN ADMINISTERED TOPICALLY TO DOGS
FARNAM BIOSPOT FOR DOGS - MATERIAL DATA SAFETY SHEET (MSDS)
BAYER K9 ADVANTIX - MATERIAL DATA SAFETY SHEET (MSDS)
MERIAL FRONTLINE PLUS FOR DOGS - MATERIAL DATA SAFETY SHEET (MSDS)
RESEARCHER SAYS WORK'S TIE TO WAR ILLNESS GOT HIM FIRED
WHY PESTICIDE SPRAYING FOR WEST NILE VIRUS MAY CAUSE MORE HARM THAN GOOD
How do I report an adverse reaction to a flea control product?
If you suspect your pet had an adverse reaction to a pesticide product, please contact:
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
Office of Pesticide Programs (Mail Code 7509C)
Ariel Rios Building
1200 Pennsylvania Ave. NW
Washington, D.C. 20460
E-mail: [email protected]
Why has the EPA failed to protect
animals from being injured and killed
by pet pesticide products?
Look no further than EPA Administrator
Stephen Johnson - the lapdog for the
To learn more about the health risks of flea control products and safer alternatives, visit the following websites:
CAUTION: This information is provided for educational purposes only. It is not intended to replace professional veterinary advice. Please consult with your veterinarian before giving any treatment to your animals.
Message Board - Let Others Know About Your Experience
Vol. 1 : 8/28/02 - 7/17/03
Vol. 2 : 7/19/03 - 10/14/03
Vol. 3 : 10/14/03 - 6/26/04
Vol. 4 : 6/29/04 - 10/4/04
Vol. 5 : 10/5/04 - 2/8/05
Vol. 6 : 2/9/05 - 6/9/05
Vol. 7 : 6/10/05 - 8/4/05
Vol. 8 : 8/4/05 - 11/11/05
For more information on your pet's health, please visit:
Pet Advocate 101
And what is good, Phaedrus, and what is not good -
Need we ask anyone to tell us these things?
-Plato, The Phaedrus
Vol. 9 : 11/12/05 - 5/9/06
Vol. 10 : 5/10/06 - 7/10/06
Vol. 11 : 7/11/06 - 9/7/06
"Although research has demonstrated a link between
pesticide exposure and health effects, the question of how much exposure over what period of time has not yet been answered. Because we don't know how much is safe, we must, as a precaution, assume that no level is safe."
Thomas Arcury, PhD
Wake Forest University School of Medicine
Vol. 12 : 9/8/06 - 11/7/06
"After the granting of a marketing authorisation, veterinary medicines must continue to meet the requirements for safety and efficacy and offer an acceptable balance between their
benefits and risks. An inexpensive and effective method for ensuring continued safe and effective use of veterinary medicinal products following their introduction to the market place is through the spontaneous reporting of suspected adverse drug reactions to the relevant authority."
David Murphy, MVB PhD
Irish Medicines Board
Vol. 13 : 11/8/06 - Present